Alibaba’s extraordinary financial ambitions make some banks feel uneasy
There will always be some people. When you are still in the stage of “think about”, they have lifted their sleeves and busy, waiting for you to wait for you When you want to pursue straight, it is not easy to find.
On August 24th, at the Ping An Interim Report Performance Conference in China, Ma Mingzhe, Chairman of the Group, confirmed that it was planned to set up a joint venture with Tencent Ma Huateng and Alibaba Ma Yun. The sales of financial products, these three companies will open up new channels for insurance sales in combination with their respective advantages.
Soon, when Jack Ma participated in the interview, he stated that Ali Small Loan would face the general membership of Jiang, Zhejiang (except Wenzhou), and Shanghai Alibaba. Earlier, Ali Xiaoyai only targeted paid users in the three places. In this way, the coverage of business will increase successfully.
The two news came out and shocked four.
In fact, whether the “three horses” or Ali small loans expand their customers, it is not Alibaba’s first show as an e -commerce cross -border finance. Alibaba has set up Ali Financial for a long time. Two years ago, two years ago. Established Alibaba Small Loan Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Ali Small Loan Company”), which has currently provided financing services to a total of 130,000 customers, with a loan scale of more than 26 billion and a non -performing rate of 0.72%. Over the years, “Sillet has made a fortune.”
However, Ali Finance once stated that he had no intention of grabbing cakes with the bank and just wanted to make small and micro enterprise customers under 1 million.
“Ali Small Loan Company is currently facing the customer base where the bank is unwilling to serve, so the existence of this company is very meaningful. If they can get a bank license one day, they are likely to become a family. Excellent professional banks for online customers. “For Alibaba’s small loan, the director of the Banking Research Office of the Institute of Finance of the Academy of Social Sciences, Zeng Gang has given a high evaluation.
In fact, behind the small loan business in full swing is Alibaba’s financial ambitions and a little uneasy of banks. Is Ali’s small loan company “self -sweeping the door of the door” or the crisis of “wolf coming” for the bank? Both banks and e -commerce companies should prepare early for the future of IT’s entry into finance.
Doing small loans online
Small loans online are not new. In addition to online applications and review, customers who apply for loans will also conduct field investigations and verification.
The other is based on online censorship and control like Ali Small Loan Company. Its service targets are also aimed at Taobao, Tmall, and Alibaba. Maybe only they can do it. “The manager commented.
In June 2010, with the promotion of shareholders such as Alibaba, Fosun, Wanxiang, and Intime, Ali Microfin Company quietly came out. It is the first nationwide to complete the financing of small and micro enterprises in the field of e -commerce. Required small loan companies.
During the dream (pseudonym) 2007, he opened a shop on Taobao during the college, selling Korean jewelry that girls like. Maintain the survival of the shop. After graduating in 2009, he did not find the ideal job. Yu Meng started to take care of this online store. He borrowed 100,000 yuan from his parents and broadened the purchase channel through friends. The business was good.
Two years later, Yu Meng’s shop achieved a crown level. More and more channel dealers began to contact her. The funds were tight and she was stretched. “Alibaba has indeed given me some surprises for members’ small loan services.” Because Yu Meng’s small shop has a high degree of good review, the capital exchanges since opening the store are relatively simple and clear. Dream got a small loan of 200,000 yuan.
“Such loans do not need to be mortgaged. Although interest is higher than banks, some high interest parts are repaid with loans, which are counted on daily interest. Yes, it is impossible for the small online stores that have no mortgage to make money from the bank. “Recently, Yu Meng’s online shop opened a attached Korean -style clothing store. The loan company applies for a larger amount of loans.
The advantages of Ali Small Loan Company are reflected in this instance. Tens of millions of small and micro enterprises across the country buy and sell on Alibaba’s platform. Customers have large and small financing needs, and more or less financing needs, while Alibaba has settled Alipay’s huge background data for many years. If you want to know the situation of these member companies, it can be said that it is easy.
In addition to the customers facing online merchants, Ali’s small loan path is actually not much different from other banks and small loan companies focusing on micro -loan. Credit application loans; online applications can complete the entire processing process on average 7 working days; it is more convenient to calculate and discontinue interest on daily interest.
So, how did Ali Small Loan Corporation do?
According to the platform of customer sources, the two loan products coexist at Ali Microfin Company. Order loans and credit loans provided by customers. This kind of product is also called “Taobao Small Loan”. Usually the amount is small, the lowest loan is only a few hundred yuan, but it is the most urgent and urgent loan. The censorship is fast. The loan will beTime to enter the customer’s Alipay account.
The other is a credit loan provided by corporate customers on the Alibaba platform for B2B (commercial to commercial) platform customers, that is, “Ali Small Loan”. For such customers, the threshold of Ali Microfin Company is 50,000 to 1 million yuan, and the period is generally one year.
The circulating loan is relatively flexible, obtaining a certain amount as a spare money, no use and not receiving interest, you can borrow and repay. For a few days, although a credit card is similar, it is only a single profit; the fixed loan is cheaper, and the loan quota is issued at one time after the loan is obtained. In loans, the proportion of “fixed loans” accounts for at least 20%, and the quota is not less than 50,000 yuan.
Before Ma Yun released the news, the customers faced by Ali Small Loan were paid members on the Alibaba platform. 2 years. According to Alibaba’s statistics, the number of Chinese stations has exceeded 50 million. This group is expected to be tens of millions of levels in Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai, which has been opened in Ali Credit Loans.
Now, ordinary Alibaba members of these three places will enjoy loan services and no longer have the restrictions on paid or not. In a word of Ma Yun, nearly ten million small companies on Alibaba platforms become the things in Alibaba Finance, and the number of customers’ rising rises can be foreseeable.
Wang Tong, the person in charge of Ali Financial, said, “In the past, Ali Small Loan was only open for paid members and had risk control considerations. Now it is open to ordinary members. Improved. “
Although a stable and huge customer base is the target of many financial institutions, Alibaba’s biggest advantage is not only there. A series of risk control costs such as credit level, repayment capacity, and monitoring of cash flow after loan, “Zeng Gang said.” The most important information about banks wants to credit and cash flow. The reason why each bank requires loan customers to open an account here. “
This point, Ali Small Loan has natural advantages. The sewing connection, the credit data and behavioral data accumulated by customers are introduced into the network data model and online video credit survey mode. The cross -inspection technology supplements the authenticity of customer information by third -party verification, and the behavior of the customer on the e -commerce network platform Data mapping is a credit evaluation of enterprises and individuals.
The complete risk control system is also an indispensable core link for small loan companies. Ali Small Loan Corporation has established a multi -level micro -loan risk early warning and management bodyDepartment, the front, middle and secondary links of the loan are closely integrated, and the use of data collection and model analysis can be used. According to the credit and behavior data accumulated on the Alibaba platform, the ability and behavior of the company’s repayment and repayment willingness to repay the company to evaluate. “At the same time, combined with post -loan monitoring and online store (account) shutdown mechanism, it improves the cost of customer default and can effectively control loan risks.” Relevant persons in Ali Small Loan told reporters.
In June 2011, Ali Small Loan Co., Ltd. took the first step of expansion on the basis of Zhejiang Alibaba Small Loan Company and opened Chongqing Alibaba Micro Loan Co., Ltd. The home company also provides loan services for Taobao Micro Loan and Ali Small Loan.
The data is king
In Alibaba, because the merchant’s credit records are more convenient, the homogeneity and standardization of information obtaining information through the Internet, and small loan services are also designed to be ordinary. Like goods, it has become a mass -based product on the factories. From the perspective of the amount of loan, Alibaba Finance has invested a total of 1.7 million loans in the first half of the year, with an average of about 9,000 loans per day. The average loan of each loan is about 7,000 yuan. One micro -loan factory operation technology has become increasingly mature and gradually formed.
It is the strong information system and data support that supports this factory operation.
According to the relevant personnel of Ali Small Loan Corporation, the computing of large -scale data of small and micro enterprises relies on the Internet’s cloud computing technology, which not only ensures its safety and efficiency, but also reduces operating costs. The links can provide 365*24 all -weather financial services for small and micro enterprises. Compared with the Bank of Chamber of Commerce, as of the end of June 2012, Baoshang Bank issued a total of 2090,000 small corporate loans, with an amount of 32.606 billion yuan. During the same period, Ali Microfin Corporation has provided financing services for more than 130,000 small and micro enterprises, with a total loan of over 26 billion yuan and a non -performing rate of 0.72%.
Baoshang Bank has been committed to micro -loan since 2005, and Ali Small Loan Corporation has been involved in just two years. It has to be said that compared to the bank through the bank’s family to run micro -loan, Ali Xiaoxiao, Ali Xiaoxiao The loan company is a bit a bit waiting for customers to come to the door.
Zhao Mengqin, general manager of the Ministry of Finance of the Ministry of Small Enterprises in Chamber of Commerce, once admitted to reporters that the difficulty of retail micro -loan is that the information opaque is high, the lack of guarantee mortgage, the cost of monitoring after loan, and the uncertain factors, but in the end Ali Small Loan Corporation, all information that is attached to artificially collected can be obtained from the Internet.
Before a loan is issued, it can determine its credit level through the customer’s credit and capital circulation records, and issueAfter that, it can monitor its cash flow through channels such as Alipay. Whether the funds that are not consistent with the purpose of the loan can be used at a glance. The data is like the palm; on the other hand, the merchant conducts transactions through Alipay. Once the risk of breach of contract, Ali’s small loan company can hold the merchant’s cash flow at any time through Alipay to ensure the security of loans.
“The customer’s online transactions are all controlled by Alibaba, but for banks, if some dishonesty small companies are falsified and decorated, they may not get the true enterprise. Financial data has covered risks. “Zeng Gang said that Alibaba’s use of its own advantages to reduce the cost of risk control is almost different from traditional credit.” The huge data support is Alibaba’s wealth. “
Relevant persons of Ali Small Loan also said that they attach importance to data, rather than relying on guarantee or mortgage The value of corporate credit accumulated on the e -commerce platform is presented.
Alibaba wants to realize the credit value of their customers. From 2007 to 2010, Alibaba has had a short honeymoon with CCB, and launched it. In the loan product called “E Loan”, Alibaba provided CCB with the basic qualifications of “Integrity” and “Chinese supplier” membership companies and the evaluation records accumulated by many years of transactions.
At that time, Alibaba has established a set of credit evaluation systems and credit databases, and a series of control mechanisms to respond to loan risks. Including bad debt customers “Internet Wanted on the Internet” formulated for network characteristics. These measures have also been recognized by CCB, which is really desirable for a while and its expectations for opening the broad market.
However, the good times did not last long. Although Alibaba has always declared that it is not profitable, the small loan’s rich income makes it eye -catching. It is difficult to issue loans for large -scale loans for online merchants. The two from the concept to style are not matched to launch foreshadowing.
There are data, platforms, and funds. Alibaba quickly came out of the shadow of the failure of cooperation, and Ali’s small loan company came into being. “At this time, Alibaba has accumulated a lot of knowledge and experience in lending loan in the cooperation with CCB.” E -commerce, of course, is not a magnitude compared to Alibaba. “
untilIn June of this year, CCB’s “Shanrong Business” platform was finally online. Its operating model is quite similar to Taobao. It is divided into two ports of the personal mall and business business. Enterprises and individuals provide a variety of financial services such as financing, wealth management, and installment payment.
“The reason why CCB is doing a network platform is nothing more than seeing the core of Alibaba e -commerce network is the comprehensive control of customer information data. The fundamental. “Liu Zhuo, vice chairman and secretary of the board of directors of Harbin Bank.
Yueye and Youyou
For the rise of Ali’s small loan company, the banking industry has different responses. Large banks that are longer than marketing customers do not seem to swallow this small loan company whale whale whale and micro The market’s weather is in their eyes, but some small and medium banks and urban commercial banks committed to micro -loan are really unable to sit still.
When it comes to Ali’s small loan company, Zhao Mengqin, who rarely shops on the Internet, is still a bit vague about the specific model, but she also agrees that her scale will become increasingly large, because “the customer is already its own. ”
In this way, will the bank’s micro -loan customers impact and divert? Zhao Mengqin believes that the micro -loan customers served by the contractor are customers who have physical stores or do small sales and open small supermarkets. Choosing to open online, then the incremental customers may have an impact.
At the same time, she believes that most of the merchants in Taobao or Alibaba are engaged in sales or flowing fields. This is only a specific link in the industrial chain. There are many things on the chain and outside the chain, such as production, processing, etc. The corporate customers of the category, “The link that extends outside is not possible to be eaten quickly. Now Alibaba develops fast because it has the most stable part of the industrial chain. If it will be further expanded in the future . “
Even so, some urban commercial banks with micro -loan -based business are still” scared out of cold sweat “. Alliance, one of the important goals is to establish an e -commerce platform in the United Alliance, develop a diversified micro -loan business, and resist the emerging financial segment.
In fact, according to the survey data of Alibaba platform, about 89%of corporate customers need financing, and about 55.3%of enterprises with financing demand below 500,000, about 87.3%of less than 2 million, while 2 million, while 2 million The following financing demand is always the shortcomings of traditional finance.
“Many people think that Alibaba has grabbed the bank’s business. In fact, due to the high cost of micro -loan business management and risk control, it is not in line with the bank’s credit customer positioning. The problemEssence “Zeng Gang said that the threshold of Alibaba’s 1 million threshold determines that it is currently a” complement relationship “with the bank, rather than who replaces who is absolute. Optimistic.
But Ali Small Loan Corporation is not a bank after all. For banks, loans are only part of its core business. Financial Services.
The biggest restriction of a small loan company is that the loan issued to customers can only be derived from the registered capital of shareholders. At the same time, if the company gets credit in the bank, the central bank does not exceed 50% of the registered capital capital The part of the loan can be leaned, so no matter how much money the merchants and individual consumers are input to Alipay every day, no matter how long these funds have been lying in Alipay’s pool, theoretically Alibaba cannot use these money to issue loans to loans. Otherwise, they will be suspected of illegal fundraising.
At present, the registered capital of two Ali small loan companies in Zhejiang and Chongqing reached 1.6 billion yuan. , The source of loan funds will sooner or later become the development of its development.
Wang Tong also said that in addition to the funding issues, the small loan company itself also faces a relatively heavy tax burden, “rather than financial institutions from the financial institutions. The identity makes small loans very different from financial institutions in terms of policies and other aspects of enjoyment, and the development prospects are even more vague. “
Now, Zhao Mengqin began to study this small loan company. She said,” In the future, it will not be ruled out that it will cooperate with relevant e -commerce platforms to open up a new micro -loan market.
Liu Zhuo told reporters that some Southern City Commercial Bank now hopes to cooperate with Ali’s small loan company, but they have been rejected Perhaps Ali Small Loan Company still tends to take a bank license or attach to a larger financial institution.